The combined problem of population growth and economic growth forces man to become more conscious of the cause and effect of his actions and their consequences. The following articles are but a few examples of a growing consciousness of man's responsibility not Read More An Analysis of African Wildlife in Africa words, 4 pages Wildlife Management in Africa In the past three decades, many of Africas wild animals have suffered a massive decline in population due to poaching. Africa is the world's second largest continent and home to thousands of species of animals.
Gas — Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter. A pure gas may be made up of atoms, elemental molecules made from one type of atom. A gas mixture would contain a variety of pure gases much like the air, what distinguishes a gas from liquids and solids is the vast separation of the individual gas particles.
This separation usually makes a colorless gas invisible to the human observer, the interaction of gas particles in the presence of electric and gravitational fields are considered negligible as indicated by the constant velocity vectors in the image.
One type of commonly known gas is steam, the gaseous state of matter is found between the liquid and plasma states, the latter of which provides the upper temperature boundary for gases. Bounding the lower end of the temperature scale lie degenerative quantum gases which are gaining increasing attention, high-density atomic gases super cooled to incredibly low temperatures are classified by their statistical behavior as either a Bose gas or a Fermi gas.
For a comprehensive listing of these states of matter see list of states of matter. The only chemical elements which are stable multi atom homonuclear molecules at temperature and pressure, are hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen.
These gases, when grouped together with the noble gases. Alternatively they are known as molecular gases to distinguish them from molecules that are also chemical compounds.
The word gas is a neologism first used by the early 17th-century Flemish chemist J. An alternative story is that Van Helmonts word is corrupted from gahst and these four characteristics were repeatedly observed by scientists such as Robert Boyle, Jacques Charles, John Dalton, Joseph Gay-Lussac and Amedeo Avogadro for a variety of gases in various settings.
Their detailed studies ultimately led to a relationship among these properties expressed by the ideal gas law. Gas particles are separated from one another, and consequently have weaker intermolecular bonds than liquids or solids. These intermolecular forces result from interactions between gas particles.
Like-charged areas of different gas particles repel, while oppositely charged regions of different gas particles attract one another, transient, randomly induced charges exist across non-polar covalent bonds of molecules and electrostatic interactions caused by them are referred to as Van der Waals forces.
The interaction of these forces varies within a substance which determines many of the physical properties unique to each gas. A comparison of boiling points for compounds formed by ionic and covalent bonds leads us to this conclusion, the drifting smoke particles in the image provides some insight into low pressure gas behavior 2.
Redox — Redox is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed. Any such reaction involves both a process and a complementary oxidation process, two key concepts involved with electron transfer processes. Redox reactions include all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation state changed, in general, the chemical species from which the electron is stripped is said to have been oxidized, while the chemical species to which the electron is added is said to have been reduced.
It can be explained in terms, Oxidation is the loss of electrons or an increase in oxidation state by a molecule, atom.
Reduction is the gain of electrons or a decrease in state by a molecule, atom. As an example, during the combustion of wood, oxygen from the air is reduced, the reaction can occur relatively slowly, as in the case of rust, or more quickly, as in the case of fire.
Redox is a portmanteau of reduction and oxidation, the word oxidation originally implied reaction with oxygen to form an oxide, since dioxygen was historically the first recognized oxidizing agent.
Later, the term was expanded to encompass oxygen-like substances that accomplished parallel chemical reactions, ultimately, the meaning was generalized to include all processes involving loss of electrons. The word reduction originally referred to the loss in weight upon heating a metallic ore such as an oxide to extract the metal.
In other words, ore was reduced to metal, antoine Lavoisier showed that this loss of weight was due to the loss of oxygen as a gas. Later, scientists realized that the atom gains electrons in this process. The meaning of reduction then became generalized to all processes involving gain of electrons.
Even though reduction seems counter-intuitive when speaking of the gain of electrons, it help to think of reduction as the loss of oxygen.
Since electrons are charged, it is also helpful to think of this as reduction in electrical charge. The electrochemist John Bockris has used the words electronation and deelectronation to describe reduction and oxidation processes respectively when they occur at electrodes and these words are analogous to protonation and deprotonation, but they have not been widely adopted by chemists.
The term hydrogenation could be used instead of reduction, since hydrogen is the agent in a large number of reactions. But, unlike oxidation, which has been generalized beyond its root element, the word redox was first used in The processes of oxidation and reduction occur simultaneously and cannot happen independently of one another, the oxidation alone and the reduction alone are each called a half-reaction, because two half-reactions always occur together to form a whole reaction 3.
Argon — Argon is a chemical element with symbol Ar and atomic number The earth\'s atmosphere has gradually changed since the Earth\'s birth approximately million years ago The Poisoning of Our Ozone The poisoning of the Earths ozone layer is increasingly attracting worldwide concern for the global environment and the health effects of life on the Planet Earth.
Sep 21, · The rescue of the planet’s protective ozone layer has been hailed as one of the great success stories of modern environmental regulation — but on Monday, an international team of . Nursing Our Fragile Ozone Layer Back to Health ( words, 7 pages) The Poisoning of Our Ozone Layer The poisoning of the Earths ozone layer is increasingly attracting worldwide concern for the global environment and the health effects of life on the Planet Earth.
The Hole in Earth’s Ozone Layer Is Healing, First-of-Its-Kind Study Shows: The Hole in Earth’s Ozone Layer Is Healing, First-of-Its-Kind Study Shows. Found here – Nature goodies ‹ The Ocean Floor Is Sinking Due To Additional W.
An analysis of poisoning of the earths ozone layer as increasingly attracting worldwide concern for; Transcenditalism in american scholar; An analysis of carbon dioxide in earth atmosphere; An analysis of the topic of chaim potok; Essays on how to prevent road accidents;. Jul 29, · Almost 30 years ago the world responded to the realisation that our ozone layer was in trouble.
The resulting Montreal Protocol was a rare example of global cooperation, but there's no room for.