Diagram showing the operation of a 4-stroke SI engine.
Bring fact-checked results to the top of your browser search. History of the automobile Unlike many other major inventions, the original idea of the automobile cannot be attributed to a single individual.
Leonardo da Vinci considered the idea of a self-propelled vehicle in the 15th century. In a Swiss clergyman, J. Genevois, suggested mounting small windmills on a cartlike vehicle, their power to be used to wind springs that would move the road wheel.
Two-masted wind carriages were running in the Netherlands inand a speed of 20 miles 30 km per hour with a load of 28 passengers was claimed for at least one of them.
Other inventors considered the possibilities of clockwork. Probably in a carriage propelled by a large clockwork engine was demonstrated in Paris by the versatile inventor Jacques de Vaucanson.
The air engine is thought to have originated with a 17th-century German physicist, Otto von Guericke. Guericke invented an air pump and was probably the first to make metal pistons, cylinders, and connecting rods, the basic components of the reciprocating engine.
In the 17th century a Dutch inventor, Christiaan Huygensproduced an engine that worked by air pressure developed by explosion of a powder charge. Denis Papin of France built a model engine on the vacuum principle, using the condensation of steam to produce the vacuum. An air engine was patented in England inand a grid of compressor stations was proposed to service vehicles.
An air-powered vehicle is said to have been produced in Steam propulsion was proposed as early as the 16th century, and in Ferdinand Verbiesta Belgian Jesuit missionary to China, made a model steam carriage based on a principle suggestive of the modern turbine.
In the 18th century a French scientist, Philippe Lebonpatented a coal-gas engine and made the first suggestion of electrical ignition. In Paris, Isaac de Rivas made a gas-powered vehicle in ; his engine used hydrogen gas as fuel, the valves and ignition were operated by hand, and the timing problem appears to have been difficult.
The age of steam Most historians agree that Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot of France was the constructor of the first true automobile. Cugnot was an artillery officer, and the more or less steam-tight pistons of his engine were made possible by the invention of a drill that accurately machined cannon bores.
Because of the heavy weight of the steam chamber in the front, it had a tendency to tip over when not hauling cannons, which was what it was designed to do. Steam buses were running in Paris about Oliver Evans of Philadelphia ran an amphibious steam dredge through the streets of that city in Less well-known were Nathan Read of Salem, Massachusetts, and Apollos Kinsley of Hartford, Connecticut, both of whom ran steam vehicles during the period — In March the magazine Scientific American described tests of a vehicle that weighed only pounds about kg and achieved a speed of 20 miles 30 km per hour.
Another American, Frank Curtis of Newburyport, Massachusetts, is remembered for building a personal steam carriage to the order of a Boston man who failed to meet the payment schedule, whereupon Curtis made the first recorded repossession of a motor vehicle.
English inventors were active, and by the s the manufacture and use of steam road carriages was flourishing. Watt was opposed to the use of steam engines for such purposes; his low-pressure steam engine would have been too bulky for road use in any case, and all the British efforts in steam derived from the earlier researches of Thomas Savery and Thomas Newcomen.
Sir Goldsworthy Gurneythe first commercially successful steam carriage builder, based his design upon an unusually efficient boiler. He was not, however, convinced that smooth wheels could grip a roadway, and so he arranged propulsion on his first vehicle by iron legs digging into the road surface.
His second vehicle weighed only 3, pounds 1, kg and was said to be capable of carrying six persons. He made trips as long as 84 miles km in a running time of 9 hours and 30 minutes and once recorded a speed of 17 miles 27 km per hour. Gurney equipment was used on the Gloucester-Cheltenham service of four daily round trips; under favourable conditions the equipment could complete the 9 miles 15 km in 45 minutes.
Between February 27 and June 22,steam coaches ran 4, miles 6, km on this route, carrying some 3, passengers. The equipment was noisy, smoky, destructive of roadways, and admittedly dangerous; hostility arose, and it was common for drivers to find the way blocked with heaps of stones or felled trees.
Nevertheless, numerous passengers had been carried by steam carriage before the railways had accepted their first paying passenger.Gas-Engine Principles With Explanations of the Operation, Parts, Installation, Handling, Care, and Maintenance of the Small Stationary and Marine Engine, and Chapters on the Effect, Location, Remedy, and Prevention of Engine .
Travel back in time with us as we explore the history of the electric vehicle. The first turning point many have suggested was the introduction of the Toyota Prius. It's driving energy comes only from liquid fuel. Learn about the history of the hybrid -- from the world's first one to the world's best selling one.
What is an Engine? According to Webster's dictionary, an engine is "a machine for converting any of various forms of energy into mechanical force and motion." In the case of the modern automobile, the machine is the internal combustion engine which converts gasoline into motion.
An internal combustion engine (ICE) History. Various scientists and engineers contributed to the development of internal combustion engines. In , John Barber developed the gas turbine.
In Introduction to Internal Combustion Engines (2nd ed.). Macmillan. Engines Interactivepowered by internal combustion run cars, airplanes, lawn mowers, and other machines.
Combustion means “burning.” Fuel, usually gasoline, burns inside an internal-combustion engine to make it work. Compared to earlier steam engines, internal-combustion engines are lighter and more powerful. They made automobiles possible.
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