Introductions and Conclusions Organizing Your Thoughts Making sense out of your observations about a text is a difficult task. With which idea should you begin? Should you address the opinions of other thinkers?
Correspondence to Raquel Burrows email: Bulletin of the World Health Organization ; Although critical stages of brain maturation occur early in life, the development of certain structures and higher cognitive functions e.
A positive association between good diet and academic performance was found in adolescents from Canada, 12 Chile, 13 Iceland, 1415 the Netherlands, 16 Norway, 17 Sweden 1819 and the United Kingdom.
However, unhealthy diet in children and adolescents is a major health problem in a growing number of low- and middle-income countries. We hypothesized that a diet in accordance with food guidelines at age 16 years would be associated with better academic performance in both the college admission tests and high school grade-point average.
Methods Study design and population We studied 16 year-old students living in Santiago, Chile from a region of low-to-middle socioeconomic status who were part of a cohort study beginning in infancy.
At 16, they were assessed for obesity and cardiovascular risk factors, including body-mass index BMIwaist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, blood lipids, glucose and insulin.
Enrolment and data from previous waves are described in detail elsewhere. Informed consent was provided in writing according to the requirements of the Declaration of Helsinki Dietary assessment The nutritional quality of diet at age 16 years was measured accounting for the amount of saturated fat, fibre, sugar and salt in the food.
We used a validated food frequency questionnaire used in previous studies to assess the usual diet during breakfast, lunch, dinner, snacks at school and snacks at home.
The frequency of food consumption was assessed by a multiple response grid; participants were asked to estimate how often a particular food or beverage was consumed.
Categories ranged from never to seven times a week. Software based on the Chilean food composition tables was used to calculate nutrient intake.
A score ranging from 0—2 was assigned to each meal category, with higher scores representing healthier habits.
To estimate the overall quality of diet, scores were summed as a raw score range 0— We applied cut-offs for the Chilean adolescent population to classify the overall diet of participants into three groups: This consists of two mandatory tests language and mathematicsand two non-mandatory tests science and social science.
Each test is made up of multiple-choice items and scores range from —, with a passing score defined as For this analysis, we considered performance on the mandatory tests only. Since the exam is just one part of the college application, we also accounted for the academic record as measured by grade-point average GPA.
Following the criteria of the Ministry of Education, grades on a scale of 1—7 were transformed into scores. The arithmetic average of all annual averages of each subject taken during the four years of high school was calculated and the result was compared in the conversion table provided by the Department of Assessment, Measurement and Educational Record, University of Chile, which compiles specifications and holds the examination on behalf of the Ministry of Education.
We used personal identification codes to link academic results to anthropometric, sociodemographic and dietary data. We calculated Z-scores for body-mass index BMI.
Type of secondary education In Chile, high school begins after the 8th grade of primary education, lasts for four years and is compulsory. Data on the type of secondary education attended by participants was retrieved from the Curriculum and Assessment Unit, Chilean Ministry of Education.
Maternal education Because maternal education may affect the quality of the home environment, 31 this is a potential confounder of the association between diet and academic performance.
Maternal education was reported as the highest completed level in three categories: We merged these categories into two: Associations between diet at age 16 years the exposure and academic performance in mathematics, language and GPA outcomes were examined using logistic regression models.
Potential confounders were selected for inclusion based on statistical significance in bivariate analyses. Four models were estimated. We evaluated the models using likelihood ratio tests, Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit tests and the percentage of correctly classified cases data available from corresponding author.
Results Of adolescents enrolled in the obesity and cardiovascular study, applied for higher education.
When comparisons of characteristics were made between those who applied for higher education and those who did not, no differences were found in age, BMI and weight at age 16 years. However, those who did not apply for higher education were less likely to have healthy diets and attend academic high school; a higher proportion of these were males and their mothers were less likely to have completed secondary education data available from corresponding author.
Our final sample comprised Mean scores in language and mathematics were Features of academic writing Organisation. Academic writing is well organised. It flows easily from one section to the next in a logical fashion.
A good place to start is the genre of your text. Once you have decided on the genre, the structure is easily determined. A style guide (or manual of style) is a set of standards for the writing and design of documents, either for general use or for a specific publication, organization, or field.
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جامعة الملك عبدالعزيز KING ABDULAZIZ UNIVERSITY. There is an error in the Page: أثناء تصفحك للموقع. The Aldridge Foundation is an educational charity that helps communities transform through entrepreneurship and enterprise.