Wilson Knight on Shakespeare A. The Occult and the Mystical in Shakespeare I continue to be impressed by the work of the eminent literary critic and Shakespeare specialist G. Knight wrote several volumes of essays on Shakespeare.
References and Further Reading 1. Poetry as Imitation The first scandal in the Poetics is the initial marking out of dramatic poetry as a form of imitation. We call the poet a creator, and are offended at the suggestion that he might be merely some sort of recording device. As the painter's eye teaches us how to look and shows us what we never saw, the dramatist presents things that never existed until he imagined them, and makes us experience worlds we could never have found the way to on our own.
But Aristotle has no intention to diminish the poet, and in fact says the same thing I just said, in making the point that poetry is more philosophic than history. By imitation, Aristotle does not mean the sort of mimicry by which Aristophanes, say, finds syllables that approximate the sound of frogs.
He is speaking of the imitation of action, and by action he does not mean mere happenings.
Aristotle speaks extensively of praxis in the Nicomachean Ethics. It is not a word he uses loosely, Othello and macbeth human weakness essay in fact his use of it in the definition of tragedy recalls the discussion in the Ethics.
Action, as Aristotle uses the word, refers only to what is deliberately chosen, and capable of finding completion in the achievement of some purpose.
Animals and young children do not act in this sense, and action is not the whole of the life of any of us. The poet must have an eye for the emergence of action in human life, and a sense for the actions that are worth paying attention to. They are not present in the world in such a way that a video camera could detect them.
An intelligent, feeling, shaping human soul must find them. By the same token, the action of the drama itself is not on the stage. It takes form and has its being in the imagination of the spectator.
The actors speak and move and gesture, but it is the poet who speaks through them, from imagination to imagination, to present to us the thing that he has made.
Because that thing he makes has the form of an action, it has to be seen and held together just as actively and attentively by us as by him. The imitation is the thing that is re-produced, in us and for us, by his art. This is a powerful kind of human communication, and the thing imitated is what defines the human realm.
If no one had the power to imitate action, life might just wash over us without leaving any trace. How do I know that Aristotle intends the imitation of action to be understood in this way?
There is the perception of proper sensibles-colors, sounds, tastes and so on; these lie on the surfaces of things and can be mimicked directly for sense perception. But there is also perception of common sensibles, available to more than one of our senses, as shape is grasped by both sight and touch, or number by all five senses; these are distinguished by imagination, the power in us that is shared by the five senses, and in which the circular shape, for instance, is not dependent on sight or touch alone.
These common sensibles can be mimicked in various ways, as when I draw a messy, meandering ridge of chalk on a blackboard, and your imagination grasps a circle. Skilled mimics can imitate people we know, by voice, gesture, and so on, and here already we must engage intelligence and imagination together.
The dramatist imitates things more remote from the eye and ear than familiar people. Sophocles and Shakespeare, for example, imitate repentance and forgiveness, true instances of action in Aristotle's sense of the word, and we need all the human powers to recognize what these poets put before us.
So the mere phrase imitation of an action is packed with meaning, available to us as soon as we ask what an action is, and how the image of such a thing might be perceived. Aristotle does understand tragedy as a development out of the child's mimicry of animal noises, but that is in the same way that he understands philosophy as a development out of our enjoyment of sight-seeing Metaphysics I, 1.
In each of these developments there is a vast array of possible intermediate stages, but just as philosophy is the ultimate form of the innate desire to know, tragedy is considered by Aristotle the ultimate form of our innate delight in imitation.
His beloved Homer saw and achieved the most important possibilities of the imitation of human action, but it was the tragedians who, refined and intensified the form of that imitation, and discovered its perfection. The Character of Tragedy A work is a tragedy, Aristotle tells us, only if it arouses pity and fear.
Why does he single out these two passions? Some interpreters think he means them only as examples--pity and fear and other passions like that--but I am not among those loose constructionists.
Aristotle does use a word that means passions of that sort toioutabut I think he does so only to indicate that pity and fear are not themselves things subject to identification with pin-point precision, but that each refers to a range of feeling.
It is just the feelings in those two ranges, however, that belong to tragedy.
Why shouldn't some tragedy arouse pity and joy, say, and another fear and cruelty? In various places, Aristotle says that it is the mark of an educated person to know what needs explanation and what doesn't.
He does not try to prove that there is such a thing as nature, or such a thing as motion, though some people deny both. Likewise, he understands the recognition of a special and powerful form of drama built around pity and fear as the beginning of an inquiry, and spends not one word justifying that restriction.
We, however, can see better why he starts there by trying out a few simple alternatives.Aristotle: Poetics. The Poetics of Aristotle ( B.C.E.) is a much-disdained book. So unpoetic a soul as Aristotle's has no business speaking about such a topic, much less telling poets how to .
Othello William Shakespeare Tragedy Essay. Be a nobleman, prince, or person of high estate; (2) Have a tragic flaw, and a weakness in judgment; and (3) Fall from high to low estate. (Hubele). Using the Aristotle criteria, we can easily classify Othello, the Moor, as a tragic hero.
READ: Macbeth, Internal Conflicts Essay. Is Othello a Tragic Hero? Essay; Is Othello a Tragic Hero? Essay. Tragic Hero Macbeth Essay. Tragic Hero Macbeth The character of Macbeth in No Fear Macbeth was written by William Shakespeare in the seventeen century, which based on the true story about king of Scotland.
with Shakespeare's play being a more involved study of human. If you are trying to choose hero examples for a heroic essay and find out that catharsis of this work is hard to analyze, this is probably not the best choice you can make. Catharsis is not just a spectacular end, that can be replaced by different aspects of your analysis.
Examples of tragic heroes are not deprived of human weaknesses. William Shakespeare’s Macbeth and Othello share themes that deal with the differentiation between appearances and truth - William Shakespeare's Macbeth and Othello introduction. Essays & Papers William Shakespeare’s Macbeth and Othello and knows all qualities with a learned spirit Of human dealings.” (III, iii, ).
How does Shakespeare present human weaknesses and flaws through Macbeth.