It is a land rich in natural resources, with recent oil discoveries putting it among the world leaders in potential oil reserves.
Middle-Ages By the early Middle Ages, a number of large field-farming oases with a sedentary population appeared in Kazakhstan. Alongside crop farming, it was engaged in horticulture and melon growing.
Feudal towns began to emerge in these parts and soon established a brisk trade with neighboring countries such as China, Iran and the states of Central Asia. In the second half of the 15th century the first Kazakhstan khanates states were formed. Political culture of kazakhstan, a long time was to pass before Kazakhstan grew into a single political entity.
There were constant wars among the khanates accompanied by the plundering of the population. Feudal disunity and internecine strife hindered the economic and cultural progress and considerably weakened the defense capacity of the Kazakh states. For nearly a hundred years Kazakhstan people waged a struggle against the Dzungar.
The invaders levied heavy taxes on Kazakhs and dealt ruthlessly with anyone who resisted. According to Kazakhstan history the country was also a victim of constant raids carried out by the Volga Kalmyks.
In the south, it was under the threat of invasion by the Central Asian khanates of Khiva, Bokhara and Kokand. Kazakh people were on the brink of complete enslavement and even extermination.
Kazakhstan history - warriors of the Middle-Ages Kazakhstan history: After Middle-Ages It was then that Kazakhs appealed for help to their neighbor, Russia, with which they had long been carrying on a lively trade to meet their needs for various consumer goods.
Despite the colonial policy of Russian government, this was an important step, which opened before the Kazakhs the opportunity of establishing direct economic and cultural links with Russian people.
Crop farming began to develop rapidly, industrial enterprises were set up. Kazakhstan history - Kazakh people in Russian Empire Kazakhstan history: In the late 19th century capitalism penetrated into agricultural sector, intensifying the process of stratification in the auls Kazakh villages.
The 20th century The First World War, which broke out inbrought innumerable calamities to the people of Kazakhstan as to the entire people of Russia. Livestock, fodder and agricultural produce were requisitioned from the Kazakhs. Taxes and levies of all kinds were increased.
According to the history of Kazakhstan after the rebellion of October the Bolsheviks ignored the ethnic differences of the people and created Kirghiz Autonomous Socialist Kazakhstan in present-day Kyrgyzstan.
Helped by Kazakh Dinmukhammad Kunayev and a large number of Kazakh youths, Brezhnev turned the ancestral Kazakh grazing lands into wheat and cotton fields. While this was a major plan for the Soviet Union the project played havoc with the lives of the Kazakhs.
Distanced from their major sources of self sufficiency, bread and meat, they became entirely dependent on imports from the rest of the Soviet Union. The s and s saw the arrival of a different group of Soviets, the technicians who worked the coal and gas deposits and who took charge of the oil industry.
This new community, added to the old farming and mining communities, tipped the balance against the Kazakhs who began to become a minority in their own country. After Brezhnev, Kunayev became First Secretary.
Using ancient Kazakh institutions such as tribal hierarchy and bata, Kunayev forged a new system of exploitation within the already exploitative Soviet system. Then using bata, or sealed lip, he prevented any information that could damage his operation from reaching the Center in Moscow.Unlike its ex-Soviet Central Asian neighbors and Russia, Kazakhstan has rarely seen attacks by religious hardliners.
The rhetoric of Islamist danger a. Formally, Kazakhstan remains a secular state. The Nazarbayev government has promoted “official” Islam as part of Kazakhstan’s cultural identity and in an effort to strengthen economic cooperation with resource-rich states of the Middle East and Asia.
Semey (Semei, former Semipalatinsk) city of Kazakhstan general facts, map location, coat of arms, people, history, nuclear weapons testing area, streets views and more. The latent tensions of years of Russian influence in Kazakhstan, coupled with the increasingly more visible disapproval by Kazakhs of Russian domination, set .
Politics, freedom of speech and the press. Political expression was reported to be restricted in Kazakhstan in the months leading up to presidential elections in December , according to observers, including Human Rights Watch and Freedom House.
Kazakh authorities reportedly attempted to restrict freedom of speech and shut down .
Kazakhstan history overview, pictures: first inhabitants of Kazakhstan, Mongol-Tatar invasion, Kazakhstan Middle Ages history, Kazakhstan Soviet history, independent Kazakhstan of the present day.