Most materials can be recycled. The following list demonstrates some reuse options. There are many more and the list is growing rapidly.
Zero waste This is a whole systems approach that aims to eliminate waste at the source and at all points down the supply chain, with the intention of producing no waste.
It is a design philosophy which emphasizes waste prevention as opposed to end of pipe waste management.
Reducing the number of components used in a product or making the product easier to take apart can make it easier to be repaired or recycled at the end of its useful life.
Fitting the intended use[ edit ] In this strategy, products and packages are optimally designed to meet their intended use. This applies especially to packaging materials, which should only be as durable as necessary to serve their intended purpose.
On the other hand, it could be more wasteful if food, which has consumed resources and energy in its production, is damaged and spoiled because of extreme measures to reduce the use of papermetalsglass and plastics in its packaging. But in some cases it has a negative environmental impact.
If a product is too durable, its replacement with more efficient technology is likely to be delayed. For example, a washing machine produced 10 years ago may use twice as much water, detergent and energy as one produced today. Similarly, older vehicles consume more fuel and produce more emissions than their modern counterparts.
Most proponents of waste minimisation consider that the way forward may be to view any manufactured product at the end of its useful life as a resource for recycling and reuse rather than waste. Car manufacturers have recently reduced the number of plastics used in their cars from twenty or more to three or four,[ citation needed ] hence simplifying the recovery of plastics from scrapped cars.
However, exceptions like having a combination of paper and plastic or plastic coating on glass do exist, and might enable a product to fulfill its role with the minimum of resources. Making refillable glass bottles strong enough to withstand several journeys between the consumer and the bottling plant requires making them thicker and so heavier, which increases the resources required to transport them.
Since transport has a large environmental impact, careful evaluation is required of the number of return journeys bottles make.
If a refillable bottle is thrown away after being refilled only several times, the resources wasted may be greater than if the bottle had been designed for a single journey. Many choices involve trade-offs of environmental impact, and often there is insufficient information to make informed decisions.
Various aspects of business practices affect waste, such as the use of disposable tableware in restaurants. Reusable shopping bags[ edit ] Reusable bags are a visible form of re-use, and some stores offer a "bag credit" for re-usable shopping bags, although at least one chain reversed its policy, claiming "it was just a temporary bonus".
While there is a minor inconvenience involved, this may remedy itself, as reusable bags are generally more convenient for carrying groceries. Households[ edit ] This section details some waste minimisation techniques for householders. Appropriate amounts and sizes can be chosen when purchasing goods; buying large containers of paint for a small decorating job or buying larger amounts of food than can be consumed create unnecessary waste.
Also, if a pack or can is to be thrown away, any remaining contents must be removed before the container can be recycled. The resources that households use can be reduced considerably by using electricity thoughtfully e. Individuals can reduce the amount of waste they create by buying fewer products and by buying products which last longer.
Mending broken or worn items of clothing or equipment also contributes to minimising household waste. Individuals can minimise their water usage, and walk or cycle to their destination rather than using their car to save fuel and cut down emissions.
In a domestic situation, the potential for minimisation is often dictated by lifestyle. Some people may view it as wasteful to purchase new products solely to follow fashion trends when the older products are still usable.
Adults working full-time have little free time, and so may have to purchase more convenient foods that require little preparation, or prefer disposable nappies if there is a baby in the family. The amount of waste an individual produces is a small portion of all waste produced by society, and personal waste reduction can only make a small impact on overall waste volumes.
Yet, influence on policy can be exerted in other areas. Increased consumer awareness of the impact and power of certain purchasing decisions allows industry and individuals to change the total resource consumption.
Consumers can influence manufacturers and distributors by avoiding buying products that do not have eco-labellingwhich is currently not mandatory, or choosing products that minimise the use of packaging.
In the UKPullApart combines both environmental and consumer packaging surveysin a curbside packaging recycling classification system to minimise waste. Where reuse schemes are available, consumers can be proactive and use them.
Health-care facilities[ edit ] Health-care establishments are massive producers of waste. Good management and control practices among health-care facilities can have a significant effect on the reduction of waste generated each day.
Practices[ edit ] There are many examples of more efficient practices that can encourage waste minimization in healthcare establishments and research facilities  Source reduction Purchasing reductions which ensures the selection of supplies that are less wasteful or less hazardous.
The use of physical rather than chemical cleaning methods such as steam disinfection instead of chemical disinfection.Recycling and Waste Minimization Guidelines; Construction waste recycling is the separation and recycling of recoverable waste materials generated during construction and remodeling.
Packaging, new material scraps and old materials and debris all constitute potentially recoverable materials. In renovation, appliances, masonry .
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Nicholson & Sons (Metals) Limited, was established in as a Scrap Metal Processor to supply the heavy steel industry in the West coast of Scotland. The ability to reuse and recycle materials salvaged from demolition and building sites for reuse and recycling depends on local recycling facilities, market demand, quality and condition of materials and components, time available for salvage, emphasis put on reuse and recycling.
The ability to reuse and recycle materials salvaged from demolition and building sites for reuse and recycling depends on local recycling facilities, market demand, quality and condition of materials and components, time available for salvage, emphasis put on reuse and recycling.
Construction projects can produce some of the most incredible, awe inspiring, and at the very least, useful creations envisioned by man. Along with these functional wonders though, construction projects are well known for producing immense amounts of waste.
The construction and demolition industry is responsible for creating more waste than . This paper proposes an overarching review of national municipal waste management systems and waste-to-energy as an important part of it in the context of circular economy in .